Yamada, 2018: Plant fossils from the Arimine Formation (Oxfordian, Jurassic) of the Tetori Group in Arimine, Toyama Prefecture, Central Japan. Paleontological Research, Vol.22 No.3, 203-209. doi:10.2517/2017PR017. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.2517/2017PR017
Ptilophyllum sp. and Zamites brevipennis are newly described from the middle Oxfordian Arimine Formation in Arimine area, Toyama Prefecture, Central Japan. These two species characterize the vegetation of the Eurosinian paleophytogeographic province where a climate with dry season(s) prevailed. This finding, as well as the presence of a Kaizara Flora, suggests that Eurosinian-type vegetations continuously flourished during the late Bathonian to Oxfordian on the land of the Tetori Group. We also infer that Tetori-type floras first appeared during the Tithonian in the Tetori Group.
Suzuki, H., 2018: Fossil evidence of the Hammerjaw fish, Omosudis sp. (Teleostei, Aulopiformes) from the Middle Miocene Yokoo Formation in Nagano Prefecture, central Japan. Paleontological Research, Vol.22 No.3, 210-217. doi:10.2517/2017PR019. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.2517/2017PR019
A fossil palatine of an alepisauroid fish collected from the Middle Miocene Yokoo Formation in Nagano Prefecture, central Japan is described as Omosudis sp. Although the palatine is preserved as a fragment, the palatine teeth arranged in a single row are well-preserved. In fact, the palatine tooth characteristics are adequate as diagnostic at generic level identification. The fossil appears to be assignable to the genus Omosudis belonging to the family Alepisauridae by having the following characteristics: enormously large, posteriorly inclined teeth with each sharply pointed apex, apico-basal striations, a nearly straight to arcuate anterior cutting edge, a wide pulp-cavity surrounded by a thin dentine layer and a fang-like outline due to a basally elongated postapical barb. The Yokoo specimen represents the first reliable fossil record of the genus from the Middle Miocene in Japan and appears to mark the earliest occurrence of this recent genus in the Northwest Pacific region.
Miyata, S., Yabumoto, Y. and Hirano, H., 2018: Nipponocypris takayamai, a New Species of Cyprinid Fish from the Nogami Formation (Middle Pleistocene) in the Southern Part of the Kusu Basin, Oita, Japan. Paleontological Research, Vol.22 No.3, 218-238. 10.2517/2017pr021. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.2517/2017PR021
A new cyprinid fish, Nipponocypris takayamai sp. nov. is described from the Middle Pleistocene Nogami Formation in Oita Prefecture, Northern Kyushu, Japan. Nipponocypris takayamai differs from its congeners in the following combination of characters: the sensory canal of the parietal not reach to the medial edge of the parietal, and its length longer than half the width of the parietal; the notch of the orbital margin of the frontal weak; the dorsal margin of opercle concave; the posterodorsal margin of the fourth infraorbital L-shaped; the sensory canal of the dentary running slightly ventrally; 42–44 vertebrae; the flanges of the neural spines of the second and third preuralcentra elongated to the dorsal ends of the neural spines; eight supraneurals between the dorsal fin and the supraneural 3 bone; the dorsal fin base located slightly more posterior than the pelvic fin base; first three dorsal fin rays unbranched and unsegmented; eight dorsal fin rays, ten dorsal fin pterygiophores; and eleven anal fin pterygiophores with thirteen anal fin rays. A cladistic analysis suggests that this new species is related to N. sieboldii, N. koreanus and N. temminckii, and is probably the sister taxon to N. temminckii. This new species shows that an extinct species closely related to Recent Nipponocypris existed until the Middle Pleistocene in East Asia.
Dick, M. H., Sakamoto, C. and Komatsu, T., 2018: Cheilostome Bryozoa from the Upper Cretaceous Himenoura Group, Kyushu, Japan. Paleontological Research, Vol.22 No.3, 239-264. 10.2517/2017pr022. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.2517/2017PR022
Cheilostome bryozoans (Phylum Bryozoa; Order Cheilostomata) originated in the latest Jurassic but remained at low diversity until the late Albian–early Cenomanian, when they began an explosive radiation that has continued to the present day. Most knowledge of Late Cretaceous cheilostomes comes from Europe and the USA from deposits associated with the western Tethys Ocean. Only a few previous records of Cretaceous bryozoans exist from the margin of eastern Asia in the NW Pacific. We examined material from four localities of early– middle Campanian age in the Himenoura Group, Shimokoshikijima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture, southern Kyushu, Japan, and detected six cheilostome species but no cyclostomes. Two species were relatively common. For one of these, we erect the new genus Kenocharixa and describe a new species, Kenocharixa kashimaensis; we also transfer Charixa goshouraensis Dick, Komatsu, Takashima, and Ostrovsky and Conopeum stamenocelloides Gordon and Taylor to Kenocharixa. We describe the other common species as Marginaria prolixa sp. nov. We detected four species as a single specimen each and identified them only to genus (Charixa sp. A) or listed them as Incertae sedis (A, B and C). Among the six cheilostomes, five are primitive anascan-grade (malacostegan) species and one is an anascan-grade neocheilostome. Compared to Campanian–Maastrichtian bryozoan faunas in Europe and the USA, the Himenoura fauna is low in diversity and morphological disparity, with no cribrimorph or ascophoran species detected. Previous researchers have suggested that the NW Pacific biota became isolated from that of the Tethys in the latest Aptian–middle Albian interval. We advance the hypothesis that the Late Cretaceous bryozoan fauna in the NW Pacific is a low diversity relict of the fauna present when this isolation occurred. While Tethyan cheilostome lineages underwent a major radiation associated with the origins of cribrimorph and ascophoran frontal shields, the NE Pacific lineages failed to diversify at the same rate and remained at low diversity and disparity. Testing this hypothesis will require much further sampling in Cretaceous deposits along the margin of East Asia.
Sato, T, Hanai, T., Hayashi, S. and Nishimura, T., 2018: A Turonian polycotylid plesiosaur (Reptilia; Sauropterygia) from Obira Town, Hokkaido, and its biostratigraphic and paleoecological significance. Paleontological Research, Vol.22 No.3, 265-278. doi:10.2517/2017PR024. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.2517/2017PR024
The Polycotylidae are short-necked plesiosaurs known from theCretaceous in various parts of the world, but only a few occurrences have beendocumented in Japan where elasmosaurid remains are much more common. Anindeterminate polycotylid specimen from the Upper Cretaceous in Obira Town,Hokkaido, is described. Characteristics of the vertebrae and clavicular archsupport its taxonomic affinity. The Turonian occurrence of the specimen indicatesthe continuous presence of the Polycotylidae across the Cenomanian-Turonianboundary in the northwestern Pacific. Macroscopic osteological features of thevertebrae and clavicular arch indicate an advanced stage of ossification, and thereare histological characteristics suggesting slowed growth. The osteoporotic-likecondition implies a high degree of aquatic adaptation.
Maekawa, T., Komatsu, T., Tanaka, G., Williams, M., Stocker, C. P., Okura, M. and Umayahara, A., 2018: Missourian (Kasimovian, Late Pennsylvanian) conodonts from limestone boulders, Mizuboradani Valley, Gifu Prefecture, central Japan. Paleontological Research, Vol.22 No.3, 279-289. doi:10.2517/2017PR023. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.2517/2017PR023
Two Late Pennsylvanian conodont species, Gondolella sublanceolata Gunnell and Idiognathodus sulciferus Gunnell, were extracted from limestone boulders in the Mizuboradani Valley, Fukuji district, central Japan. These provide the first evidence of Missourian (Kasimovian) cosmopolitan conodonts in the Akiyoshi and Hida Gaien belts, Inner Zone of Japan. The limestone boulders might be derived from the Ichinotani Formation and/or from limestone clasts in conglomerates of the Permian Sorayama Formation that crop out in the Mizuboradani Valley.